This blog is all about the exploration of ADHD! We will investigate the causes, symptoms and conventional as well as unconventional treatments for ADHD.
Learning Objectives This is an intermediate level course. After completing this course, mental health professionals will be able to: List four goals in the assessment of children referred for possible ADHD.
Utilize appropriate behavioral rating scales for evaluating ADHD in clients. Discuss the role of psychological tests and direct observations in the evaluation of ADHD. Provide an effective feedback session to parents.
The materials in this course are based on the most accurate information available to the author at the time of writing. The scientific literature adhd handwriting analysis ADHD grows daily, and new information may emerge that supersedes these course materials. This course will equip clinicians to have a basic understanding adhd handwriting analysis the diagnosis and assessment of ADHD.
The latest update of the content of this course was conducted in January of When it is feasible, clinicians may wish to supplement these components of the evaluation with objective assessments of the ADHD symptoms, such as psychological tests of attention or direct behavioral observations.
These tests are not essential to reaching a diagnosis, however, or to treatment planning, but when abnormal findings are detected they may yield further information about the presence and severity of cognitive impairments that could be associated with some cases of ADHD.
The problem is that the presence of normal scores are largely meaningless given the high proportion of ADHD cases that place in the normal range on such tests. In other words, abnormal scores may be meaningful in indicating the presence of a disorder not necessarily ADHD while normal scores should go uninterpreted given the high false negative rate of many ADHD tests.
I also briefly discuss the essential features of the medical examination of ADHD children and issues that examination needs to address.
This discussion is followed by an overview of some of the most useful behavior rating scales to incorporate in the clinical evaluation. A brief review of the role of psychological tests and direct observations in the evaluation is then presented. The information contained herein was initially drawn chiefly from my earlier chapters on assessment authored with the assistance of Gwenyth Edwards, Ph.
This material was then updated for this course in January of A major goal of such an assessment is the determination of the presence or absence of ADHD as well as the differential diagnosis of ADHD from other childhood psychiatric disorders.
For further discussion on gender, socioeconomic status, and cross cultural issues related to diagnosis and prevalence of ADHD, please see the first course in this series titled ADHD: Nature, Course, Outcomes, and Comorbidity.
A second purpose of the evaluation is to begin delineating the types of interventions needed to address the psychiatric disorders and psychological, academic, and social impairments identified in the course of assessment.
As noted later, these may include individual counseling, parent training in behavior management, family therapy, classroom behavior modification, psychiatric medications, and formal special educational services, to name just a few. Another important purpose of the evaluation is to determine conditions that often coexist with ADHD and the manner in which these conditions may affect prognosis or treatment decision making.
For instance, the presence of high levels of physically assaultive behavior by a child with ADHD may indicate that a parent training program is contraindicated, at least for the time being, because such training in limit setting and behavior modification could temporarily increase child violence toward parents when limits on noncompliance with parental commands are established.
Or, consider the presence of high levels of anxiety specifically and internalizing symptoms more generally in children with ADHD. Research shows such symptoms may be a predictor of poorer responses to stimulant medication, although the point is arguable due to mixed results across studies on this issue.
Similarly, the presence of high levels of irritable mood, severely hostile and defiant behavior, and periodic episodes of serious physical aggression and destructive behavior coupled with mania, grandiosity, and sleep or sexual disturbances may be early markers for later Bipolar Disorder Manic-Depression in children.
Such a disorder is likely to require the use of several psychiatric medications in conjunction with a parent training program and occasionally even inpatient hospitalization. As the foregoing discussion illustrates, the evaluation of a child for the presence of diagnosable ADHD is but one of many purposes of the clinical evaluation.
A brief discussion now follows regarding the different methods of assessment that may be used in the evaluation of ADHD children.
Information Obtained at the Time of Referral The initial phase of a diagnostic interview might not be conducted by the clinician but by a support staff member. The initial phone intake provides invaluable information when conducted by a well-trained individual; otherwise, it is a lost opportunity.
When a parent calls to request an evaluation, it is useful to collect the following information:Handwriting Without Tears is a program that was designed by an occupational therapist to teach children how to write without frustrating them to tears. It uses hands-on, multisensory materials and was designed in such a way that it introduces shapes, numbers, and letters in an order that matches.
The ADA Home Page provides access to Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) regulations for businesses and State and local governments, technical assistance materials, ADA Standards for Accessible Design, links to Federal agencies with ADA responsibilities and information, updates on new ADA requirements, streaming video, information about Department of Justice ADA settlement .
The National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (NJCLD) 1 strongly supports comprehensive assessment and evaluation of students with learning disabilities by a multidisciplinary team for the identification and diagnosis of students with learning disabilities.
Comprehensive assessment of individual students requires the use of multiple data sources. Related Conditions Why Is My Child So Clumsy?
If your child seems to trip over his own two feet — and injures himself a lot — he may have dyspraxia, as well as ADHD. Handwriting Without Tears is a program that was designed by an occupational therapist to teach children how to write without frustrating them to tears.
It uses hands-on, multisensory materials and was designed in such a way that it introduces shapes, numbers, and letters in an order that matches.
The symptoms, the research-based definition, the cause of dyslexia, their gifted areas, famous dyslexics and their stories, and more.