Verified information; something known to exist or to have happened. A confirmed inventory of a resource of one's own service Direct Information The content of reports, research, and analytic reflection on an intelligence issue that helps analysts and their consumers evaluate the likelihood that something is factual and thereby reduces uncertainty, Information relating to an intelligence issue under scrutiny the details of which can, as a rule, be considered factual, because of the nature of the source, the source's direct access to the information, and the concrete and readily verifiable character of the contents COMINT or OSINT quoting what a foreign official said; IMINT providing a count of the number of ships at a pier. Indirect Information Information relating to an intelligence issue the details of which may or may not be factual, the doubt reflecting some combination of the source's questionable reliability, the source's lack of direct access, and the complex character of the contents HUMINT from a reliable agent, citing secondhand what an informant said that a government official said.
Aristotle, the teacher of those who know, defended reason, invented logic, focused on reality, and emphasized the importance of life on earth. The importance of reality, reason, and logic in Aristotelian philosophy has enabled science and technology to develop and flourish.
His philosophy of reason embodied a primacy of existence approach that states that knowledge of the world commences by looking at and examining what exists. He explained that conceptualization should be preceded by inductive observation in our efforts to understand the world.
Reason is competent to know reality but it is necessary to begin with what exists in the world. He explains that the purpose of life is earthly happiness or flourishing that can be achieved via reason and the acquisition of virtue. He contends that human achievements are animated by purpose and autonomy and that people should take pride in being excellent at what they do.
According to Aristotle, human beings have a natural desire and capacity to know and understand the truth, to pursue moral excellence, and to instantiate their ideals in the world through action. Metaphysics and Epistemology Aristotle espouses the existence of external objective reality.
He contends that the basic reality upon which all else depends is the existence of individual entities. He insists upon an independent existing world of entities or beings and that what exists are individuals with nothing existing separately from them.
For Aristotle, the ontologically ultimate is the individual. According to Aristotle, these presuppositions or assumptions govern, direct, or command scientific explanation. For Aristotle, causality is a law inherent in being qua being.
To be is to be something with a specific nature and to be something with a specific nature is to act according to that nature. The ideas of identity, non-contradiction, and causality underpin the fundamentals of science and are basic principles of Aristotelian philosophy. Aristotle heralds the role of reason in a proper human life.
The ability to reason separates man from all other living organisms and supplies him with his unique means of survival and flourishing.
It is through purposive, rational conduct that a person can achieve happiness. For Aristotle, a being of conceptual consciousness must focus on reality and must discover the knowledge and actions required if he wants to fully develop as a human person.
Aristotle is a this-worldly metaphysician who avowedly rejects mysticism and skepticism in epistemology. His view is that human nature is specific and definite and that there is some essence apparent in each and every person and object. It follows that Aristotle considered essences to be metaphysical and every entity to be comprised of form, the universalizing factor, and matter, the particularizing factor.
Aristotle was also a this-worldly philosopher and scientist whose observations of the biological world led him to endorse realism, knowledge based on experience, and experience-based reasoning. The existence of universals is thus dependent on the existence of particulars.
Universals exist in the particulars that instantiate them. Aristotle holds that universals do exist, but not separately from the particulars. His view is that the one exists only as instantiated in the many. Both universals and particulars are real. Individual concrete entities exist in reality and universals exist only in particulars in the form of essences.
In this way, Aristotle wedded universals to objects. The universal and the particular are indivisible in reality and are separable only in analysis and thought. All things are a composite of a "this" and a "such. Aristotle distinguishes between matter and form. The matter is the individualizing and unique-making element or aspect.
The form is the universalizing element that makes it a member of a particular class.Mathematical logic really refers to two distinct areas of research: the first is the application of the techniques of formal logic to mathematics and mathematical reasoning, and the second, in the other direction, the application of mathematical techniques to the representation and analysis of formal logic.
In order to clarify logic, Aristotle attempts to show how it works. In order to do this he must explain: Why does Aristotle believe that we cannot give reasons for everything? what would be the essence of humanity? A. Mortality B. Instinct C. Humanness D.
Reason. C. Based upon Aristotle's teaching what is the principal cause of the. Transhumanism posits that “the essence of humanity” is something that can be preserved through any degree of alteration of the human form.
In other words, it posits that humanity has an essence that is wholly separable from living human beings, an essence that is transferable to the products of technology. [First distinction between essence and existence] "The primary analysis of the nature of being, its application to numerous things, and an introduction to the exposition of substance.
Being is recognized by reason itself without the aid of definition or description. The geographical distribution 5 of papers, graphically represented in Fig. 3, shows an interesting pattern.A majority of submissions (29) came in from Europe—what has traditionally been seen as a foundation of AI and Robotics research, the United States and Canada, sent in .
Aristotle, the teacher of those who know, defended reason, invented logic, focused on reality, and emphasized the importance of life on earth.