The Asiatic monsoon land. Rimland or inner crescent contains most of world's people as well as large share of world's resources.
This was the largest, most populous, and richest of all possible land combinations. The Heartland lay at the centre of the world island, stretching from the Volga to the Yangtze and from the Himalayas to the Arctic.
Mackinder's Heartland was the area then ruled by the Russian Empire and after that by the Soviet Unionminus the Kamchatka Peninsula region, which is located in the easternmost part of Russia, near the Aleutian Islands and Kurile islands. Strategic importance of Eastern Europe[ edit ] Later, inMackinder summarised his theory as: The Heartland's size and central position made it the key to controlling the World-Island.
The vital question was how to secure control for the Heartland. This question may seem pointless, since in the Russian Empire had ruled most of the area from the Volga to Eastern Siberia for centuries.
But throughout the nineteenth century: The West European powers had combined, usually successfully, in the Great Game to prevent Russian expansion.
The Russian Empire was huge but socially, politically and technologically backward—i. Mackinder held that effective political domination of the Heartland by a single power had been unattainable in the past because: The Heartland was protected from sea power by ice to the north and mountains and deserts to the south.
Previous land invasions from east to west and vice versa were unsuccessful because lack of efficient transportation made it impossible to assure a continual stream of men and supplies. He outlined the following ways in which the Heartland might become a springboard for global domination in the twentieth century Sempa, Successful invasion of Russia by a West European nation most probably Germany.
Mackinder believed that the introduction of the railroad had removed the Heartland's invulnerability to land invasion. As Eurasia began to be covered by an extensive network of railroads, there was an excellent chance that a powerful continental nation could extend its political control over the Eastern European gateway to the Eurasian landmass.
Before both countries were ruled by autocrats the Tsar and the Kaiserand both could have been attracted to an alliance against the democratic powers of Western Europe the US was isolationist regarding European affairs, until it became a participant of World War I in Germany would have contributed to such an alliance its formidable army and its large and growing sea power.
Conquest of Russia by a Sino-Japanese empire see below. The combined empire's large East Asian coastline would also provide the potential for it to become a major sea power.
Mackinder's "Who rules East Europe commands the Heartland Influence of the theory on foreign and military policy[ edit ] Colour representation, using a modern projection of the world. In the Western powers[ edit ] Mackinder identified the geopolitical nightmare that was to haunt the world's two sea powers during the first half of the twentieth century— Great Britain and, later the United States.
Influence of the theory on other geopolitical models[ edit ] Signs of Mackinder's Heartland Theory can be found in the works of geopolitician Dimitri Kitsikisparticularly in his " Intermediate Region " model.
There is a significant geographical overlap between the Heartland or "Pivot Area" and the Intermediate Region, with the exception of Germany - Prussia and north-eastern Chinawhich Kitsikis excludes from the Intermediate Region. The reason for this difference is that Mackinder's model is primarily geo-strategic, while Kitsikis' model is geo-civilizational.
However, the roles of both the Intermediate Region and the Heartland are regarded by their respective authors as being pivotal in the shaping of world history. Criticism[ edit ] K. Gadzhev, in his book Vvedenie v geopolitiku Introduction to Geopolitics raises a series of objections to Mackinder's Heartland to start with that the significance physiography is given there for political strategy is a form of geographical determinism.Jun 02, · This feature is not available right now.
Please try again later. The Heartland Theory and the Present-Day Geopolitical Structure of Central Eurasia Mackinder’s later works support the thesis of Eastern Europe as part of the the state structures of both the Heartland and Rimland were either objects or subjects of the geopolitical relations in Eurasia.
Their. Choose from 44 different sets of rimland flashcards on Quizlet. Log in Sign up. rimland Flashcards. Browse 44 sets of rimland flashcards. Heartland, Rimland, and Organic Theory. Describe rimland. who came up with rimland theory.
GOVT Kaplan Book: Ch. 6: The Rimland Thesis. Nicholas J. Spykman Background. "The Geographical Pivot of History and Early 20th Century Geopolitical Culture", Geographical Journal, vol.
, no 4, December , pp. – William R. Keylor, The Twentieth-Century World and Beyond: An International History Since , Asia’s Mediterranean: Strategy, Geopolitics, and Risk in the Seas of the Indo-Pacific.
oft-misunderstood “heartland” thesis. during the darkest days of World War II, the Yale geopolitical thinker Nicholas John Spykman returned to the rimland thesis, and further modified it to take into account recent great power warfare in the.
Some historians have conjectured that Mackinder's theory may have influenced Nazi Germany's drive to conquer Europe (although there are many who think the eastward push of Germany that led to World War II just happened to coincide with Mackinder's heartland theory).