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Some really goofy schemes and scams Magnetism is a mysterious phenomenon to most people, and even many of us who have taken a few courses in college physics often don't feel we really "understand" it. In the 19th century, hucksters and scam artists were taking advantage of the public's ignorance of magnetism by offering fraudulent magnetic products to treat everything from baldness to impotence, and an even wider variety of magical wonders are being hawked over the Internet nowadays.
The purpose of this Web page is to examine the scientific validity of the claims for magnetic products, especially those related to water, in order to help counter some of the sales hype that is rampant in this field and has given it something of a bad name.
Many of these claims relate to scientific principles that are frequently mis-stated or are simply wrong, but which may not be recognized as such by those whose command of chemistry and physics is lacking.
It is hoped that this information will help consumers to make their own informed decisions about the validity of these products. Magnetic water softening and scale control There is a long history of the promotion of magnets to alleviate the "hardness" of mineral-containing waters, and particularly to control the deposition of scale in teapots, plumbing systems, evaporators, and boilers.
There are now a large variety of devices on the market that claim to reduce scale deposition, and some claim to "soften" the water as well.
The earlier devices mostly employed permanent magnets, but many now use alternating magnetic or electrostatic fields. The magnetic field surrounds the pipe at some point and penetrates it from all sides. This obviously limits its use to non-ferrous pipes such as copper or plastic.
Although magnetic water treatment MWT products have been promoted since the 's, they have not received very wide acceptance within the engineering community, and the question of whether or not they are effective is still very much open.
The widespread marketing of MWT products to consumers via the Internet has done little to settle the issue.
These carbonates, unlike most salts, have solubilities that decrease at higher temperatures, so they tend to selectively deposit out on heat-exchanger surfaces such as boiler tubes.
What it's supposed to do The purpose of MWT is of course to inhibit scale deposition; whether it can also "soften" the water in the sense of removing the ions of calcium and similar elements that form soap scum and leave deposits on evaporation is not clear.
Most descriptions of MWT don't claim to remove the hardness ions from the water as conventional ion-exchange softeners do.
Most commonly the lime scale solids are said to either deposit in a loosely adherent flake-like form, or to precipitate as small particles within the water itself instead of on metal surfaces. In either case, the precipitated material is carried along with the water.
But I see two difficulties with this explanation: If particles are actually precipitated, it should be possible to observe them, either by direct collection in a micropore filter or indirectly by light-scattering methods nephthelometrybut there are no apparent reports of this.
Further, once the scale-forming particles are removed, the water should still contain at least saturation levels of the hardness ions, so the water would by no means be considered "soft"; one would expect the metal ions would still form scums with soap, and they could still form scale when the water evaporates or is boiled in teakettles, etc.
Another common claim is that MWT causes calcium carbonate to precipitate as aragonite, a crystalline modification of CaCO3 that is slightly less stable and more soluble than the much more common calcite structure. But it is not clear that the physical properties of aragonite differ all that much from those of calcite.
Permanent magnets and alternating electromagnetic fields Most of the permanent magnet devices employ a sequence of magnets, arranged so that the water passes alternately through magnetized and non-magnetized regions.Different First Authors Share a Surname But Have Different Initials.
Now imagine a surname is repeated in different references. When the first authors of multiple references have the same surname but different initials, include initials for the first authors in the in-text citations.
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Can I donate Bitcoins? How to write an Observation essay? This type of essay permits the reader “view” the described experience with his own eyes.
Here, the essay author becomes a film, which only grabbed the scenery for the reader, and he is the only one to analyze it. PERRLA is designed to write papers in APA format. It's much, much easier to write a paper directly into the PERRLA format as that is what it was designed to do.